IDCase titleDescriptionAbstract on the methodDocumentLinkCountryCase natureOI consideredKey questionKey industryTeaching levelOutcomeKeywords
616Winning the Future through Open Innovation a progress report on our Open Government InitiativeUnited States National Science and Technology Council's open innovation efforts in cases such as NASA and DARPA. "In Strategy for American Innovation, President Obama frames the government's role as (1) investing in the building blocks for innovation (infrastructure, research and development [R&D], and an educated workforce); (2) promoting market-based innovation; and (3) catalyzing breakthroughs for national priorities (e.g., health care, energy, manufacturing, and education).United States National Science and Technology Council's open innovation efforts have surfaced ten leading practices that have the potential to scale within and across Federal agencies through interagency policy and implementation groups under the leadership of, or with support from, the NSTC Committee on Technology. This paper examines the practices regarding open innovation in large governmental agencies."  https://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/microsites/ostp/openinnovation_memo0611_finalv4.pdfUSdescriptivecoupledwhy_organisation, what_practices, how_implemented, what_effectsmanufacturingbachelor, master, phdsuccessfulOpen innovation in USA, DARPA, DARPA’s Crowd-Derived Combat Support Vehicle Challenge, NASA, NASA’s Tournament Lab, USPTO, NLM, NIST, HHSA, DOE, HHS, PPO,
634When, why and how is OI applicable to postal companies: A case study on Swiss Post’s innovation managementAbout innovation management at Swiss Post Since the past decades, the postal sector has been undergoing profound reform. Against that background, postal companies search for new innovation models so as to increase their performance and to ensure their profitability and growth. A possibility to adapt the innovation management of postal operators to the changed environmental conditions is the so-called 'open innovation model’. Open Innovation makes companies rethink their innovation management: ideas are no longer exploited just from inside the company but also from outside of the firm. In open innovation research, the input side- including the decision to implement open innovation as well as the adoption of the model - has generally been neglected. Based on the case study on Swiss Post’s innovation management, we aim to answer the questions pertaining to when, why, and how are open innovation models applicable to postal operators and to define the determining factors of its application. The goal of this paper is (1) to investigate the relevance of open innovation for the postal sector as a low-technology industry and (2) to analyze how companies can implement open innovation according to their specific influencing factors.  http://crninet.com/2010/2010%20post%20d.pdfCHdescriptivecoupledwhy_organisation, what_practices, how_implemented, what_effectsservicesbachelor, master, phdsuccessfulOpen Innovation, postal industry, adoption, influencing factors
614Transaction cost economics and Open Innovation: Reinventing the wheel of boundaryThe study questions the belief that hierarchical control defeats transaction costs in Volvo case. Transaction Cost Economics (TCE) has with no doubt had a strong impact on theories of economic exchange, with a suggestion that the boundaries of firms are consequences of transaction costs. But although such costs are evident also in contemporary post-bureaucratic contexts, in terms of for instance collaboration costs and the risk for opportunistic behaviour, firms tend to open their boundaries for knowledge exchange. In this paper, we highlight the problematic use of TCE in the context of open innovation, arguing for its limited descriptive power and potentially harmful normative practice. A case study of the Volvo Group a Swedish builder for commercial vehicles moving in the direction of opening up their innovation processes will help illustrating these claims. The case questions the belief that hierarchical control defeats transaction costs. Also, it suggests that an overemphasis on calculative reduction of transaction costs together with a focus on governance and rationality leave little space for an innovative and creative climate, thus diverting the attention away from potential transaction benefits. The self-fulfilling prophecy character of subscribing to the assumptions of TCE may therefore not merely hamper but actually undermine innovation.  https://www.researchgate.net/publication/266506538_Transaction_Cost_Economics_and_Open_Innovation_Reinventing_the_Wheel_of_Boundaryemptydescriptivecoupledwhy_organisation, what_practices, how_implemented, what_effectsmanufacturingbachelor, master, phdsuccessfulTransaction cost economics, Open Innovation, transaction cost, self-fulfilling prophecy character, Volvo Group, harmful normative practice, undermine innovation, creative climate, calculative reduction, opportunistic behaviour, commercial vehicle
599The role of technology in the shift towards Open Innovation: The case of Procter & GambleThis paper analyzes Procter and Gamble’s ‘Connect and Develop’ strategy as a case study. "As with all new ideas, the concept of Open Innovation requires extensive empirical investigation, testing and development. This paper analyzes Procter and Gamble’s ‘Connect and Develop’ strategy as a case study of the major organizational and technological changes associated with open innovation. It argues that although some of the organizational changes accompanying open innovation are beginning to be described in the literature, more analysis is warranted into the ways technological changes have facilitated open innovation strategies,particularly related to new product development. Information and communications technologies enable the exchange of distributed sources of information in the open innovation process. The case study shows that furthermore a suite of new technologies for data mining, simulation, prototyping and visual representation, what we call ‘innovation technology’, help to support open innovation in Procter and Gamble. The paper concludes with a suggested research agenda for furthering understanding of the role played by and consequences of this technology"  http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-9310.2006.00429.x/pdfUSdescriptivecoupledwhy_organisation, what_practices, how_implemented, what_effectsmanufacturingbachelor, master, phd, executivesuccessfulP&G, organizational changes, technological changes, Open Innovation, licensing, internal seeding, acquisitions
633The role of platforms and platform thinking in Open Innovation networksPlatform-based open innovation business models from the perspective of third-party developers in iPhone case. By conducting in-depth interviews with software developers participating on the iPhone platform, this dissertation aims to examine platform-based open innovation business models from the perspective of third-party developers. The iPhone case study is examined in-depth by use of empirical examples and interview findings.  http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/login.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5428748&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fxpls%2Fabs_all.jsp%3Farnumber%3D5428748USdescriptivecoupledwhy_organisation, what_practices, how_implemented, what_effectsmanufacturingbachelor, master, phdsuccessful"Open Innovation, iPhone, Apple, motivations, intellectual property rights, role of Gatekeepers, case study, open sourse software (OSS), crowdsourcing theory, IPR"
625The Open Innovation paradigm in electric vehicle Industry: A case study of Tesla MotorsAbout Tesla's open innovation activities focusing intellectual property management Study firstly examines the electric vehicle industry in US and then focuses on Tesla's open innovation methods as a case study. The focus will shift to the company’s decision to share Tesla’s patents, in order to understand how a nondefense use of patents in an Open Innovation environment can be the key element to create a stronger ecosystem through competition and collaboration.  http://tesi.eprints.luiss.it/13496/1/purificato-marco-tesi-2014.pdfUSdescriptivecoupledwhy_organisation, what_practices, how_implemented, what_effectsmanufacturingbachelor, master, phdsuccessfulTesla, Open Innovation, electric vehicle, networks, partnerships, patents, Elon Musk, Lotus, Panasonic, Toyota,
635Supplier-customer collaboration from an open innovation perspective - A comparative case study of four small and medium-sized supplier firms in high-tech defense industryAbout implementation of open innovation strategies in Norwegian defense industry This thesis presents a comparative case study of collaboration through an open innovation approach in the Norwegian defense industry. By studying four small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) that deliver products to a larger customer, I explore whether there could be positive knowledge outcomes from being part of a company’s open innovation strategy. This approach turns the focus towards the SMEs as suppliers, asking whether it is possible to add a new dimension to the open innovation model, one with the focus on the suppliers. The context here is the development of Joint Strike Missile (JSM), a missile produced by Norway’s Kongsberg Defense Systems (KDS), a major defense supplier and one of the divisions of KONGSBERG (Kongsberg Gruppen). The SMEs in question are four of many suppliers that develop products for the JSM project, as a part of the KDS’ innovation strategy.  https://www.duo.uio.no/bitstream/handle/10852/35929/Austheim_MA_Thesis_2013.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=yNOdescriptivecoupledwhy_organisation, what_practices, how_implemented, what_effectsmanufacturingbachelor, master, phdsuccessfulOpen innovation, SME, Norway, outsourcing, collaboration
612Software testing in Open Innovation: An exploratory case study of the acceptance test for JenkinsAn exploratory case study on the Acceptance Test Harness (ATH) is conducted to investigate OI testing activities of Jenkins Open Innovation (OI) has gained significant attention since the term was introduced in 2003. However, little is known whether general software testing processes are well suited for OI. An exploratory case study on the Acceptance Test Harness (ATH) is conducted to investigate OI testing activities of Jenkins. As far as the research methodology is concerned, we extracted the change log data of ATH followed by five interviews with key contributors in the development of ATH. The findings of the study are threefold. First, it highlights the key stakeholders involved in the development of ATH. Second, the study compares the ATH testing activities with ISO/IEC/IEEE testing process and presents a tailored process for software testing in OI. Finally, the study underlines some key challenges that software intensive organizations face while working with the testing in OI.  http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2795365USdescriptivecoupledwhy_organisation, what_practices, how_implemented, what_effectsservicesbachelor, master, phdsuccessfulOpen Innovation, acceptance test harness, ISO/IEC/IEEE, software, software testing
636Report on Executive Activity 2: Benchmarking Analysis of Open Innovation Motives and barriers to Open Innovations: Insights from Open Innovation case studiesAbout various case studies which analyse existing barriers for cross-border open innovation activities. "This report presents the findings undertaken on the Executive Activity 2 “Benchmarking analysis of Open Innovations” of ENPI Project SE631 “Open Innovation Services for Emerging Business - OpenINNO”. The Executive Activity 2 aims to find out the best existing practice in Open Innovation methodology implementation as well as to analyse existing barriers and restrictions for cross-border open innovation activities. This report demonstrates several examples of “best practices” and discusses internal, organizational problems which firms may face when adopting an OI approach. To accomplish this task and achieve a broader vision of the subject, seven companies were examined: two large corporations and three SMEs. In respect to the focus regions one company presents Finland and other Russia (Saint-Petersburg region)."  http://www.acea.spb.ru/OpenInno/?cmd=getOutcome&param=29.EUR, USdescriptivecoupledwhy_organisation, what_practices, how_implementedmanufacturingbachelor, master, phdsuccessfulOpen Innovation, motives, barriers, OI case studies, Apple, Unilever, openness,
626Overcoming Barriers to Open Innovation at Apple, Nintendo and NokiaAbout open innovation activities in Apple, Nintendo and Nokia This is a conceptual paper on the application of open innovation in three case examples of Apple, Nintendo, and Nokia. Utilizing key concepts from research into managerial and organizational cognition, we describe how each company overcame barriers to utilizing open innovation strategy in R&D and commercialization projects. We identify three levels of barriers: cognitive, behavioral, and institutional, and describe the companies that were instrumental in companies reinventing themselves in mature markets.  http://waset.org/publications/11055/overcoming-barriers-to-open-innovation-at-apple-nintendo-and-nokiaFI, JP, USdescriptivecoupledwhy_organisation, what_practices, how_implemented, what_effectsmanufacturingbachelor, mastersuccessfulManagerial cognition, Open Innovation
623Optimizing Open Innovation With Nokia as caseThis study examines how Nokia implement Open Innovation strategies and compares with its biggest competitors Samsung and Apple's Open Innovation strategies. This paper is about the former industry leader within the smartphone industry, Nokia against the two current industry leaders, Samsung and Apple. Open innovation is a necessity for the participants within the smartphone industry since many technologies need to be mastered. But the focus is not only on open innovation since the paper also assesses other strategies within customer focus, marketing strategy and their own R&D strategy. These parts have a direct or indirect effect on the companies’ use of open innovation. Secondary sources are used to evaluate how the companies innovate.  http://pure.au.dk/portal-asb-student/files/44586986/Nokia_and_open_innovation.pdfFI, USdescriptivecoupledwhy_organisation, what_practices, how_implemented, what_effectsmanufacturingbachelor, master, phdsuccessfulOpen Innovation, Nokia, Apple. Samsung, networking, R&D,venture capital, interfirm collaboration, spin-offs,IP management
624Open Source and business model innovation: The Funambol caseAbout Funambol case which provides an optimized business model to leverage the open source advantage in an emerging market. A comprehensive theoretical framework about open source business models is still missing, notwithstanding a growing number of contributions. This lack of literature is mainly due to the relative newness of the phenomena. This paper aims at giving a contribution to the ongoing discussion about open source business implications. The research hypothesis is that open source represents a disruptive innovation for the software industry. The purpose is to understand, through case study research, how open source companies can develop successful business models. Funambol provides an interesting example of an optimized business model, able to leverage the open source advantage in an emerging market. The paper is structured in three main parts: the first one aims at outlining the research hypothesis and methodology. The second part identifies the unique competitive factors distinguishing open source business and the main business implications. The final part focuses on the analysis of the Funambol business case.  https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228650140_Open_source_and_business_model_innovation_The_Funambol_caseUSdescriptivecoupledwhy_organisation, what_practices, how_implementedservicesbachelor, master, phdsuccessfulOpen source, busines model innovation, licensing, Funambol, Sync4j
608Open services innovation: The case of BT in the UKA case study at British Telecommunications This paper investigates how Open Innovation was adopted by the incumbent telecommunications operator BT in the UK, using the case study as the research method. BT used open innovation as a management injunction to systematise innovation under a common framework to leverage and integrate technology and knowledge in order to address customer needs, and to change the way of thinking about innovation within BT.  https://www.jotmi.org/index.php/GT/article/view/993GBdescriptiveinboundwhy_organisation, what_practices, how_implemented, what_effectsservicesbachelor, master, phdsuccessfulOpen innovation, service innovation, research & development (R&D), information and communications, technologies (ICT), next generation network (NGN), public switched telephone network (PSTN), internet protocol (IP), voice over internet protocol (VoIP).
604Open Innovation: Enhancing idea generation through collaborationAbout 11 best practices and five key enablers used by leading organizations that have embraced open innovation. It also includes in-depth case studies of the following best-practice organizations involving Amway, British Telecommunications plc (BT), Cisco Systems Inc., Corning Inc., and General Mills Inc. In this research, we saw that open innovation yields to connections and partners with differential technology that was not previously considered. But it is not just technology. Open innovation also helps organizations take advantage of processes and cost structures that they may not have known before reaching out to the partner. This collaboration also gives the organizations the ability to leverage different business models such as different go to market or manufacturing opportunuties from partners.  https://www.apqc.org/knowledge-base/documents/open-innovation-enhancing-idea-generation-through-collaboration-best-practiGB, USdescriptivecoupledwhy_organisation, what_practices, how_implemented, what_effectsmanufacturingbachelor, mastersuccessfulInternal and external collaboration, network, idea generation, knowledge management, intellectual property, Open Innovation
600Open Innovation, generativity and the supplier as peer: The case of iPhone and AndroidThis study compares iphone and Android in terms of generativity and external value creation. The diffusion of various forms of digital technologies has acted as a disrupting force in several industries, promoting open and distributed innovation processes. In this paper we argue that the supplier in open innovation networks tends to get a more active role as a creative peer producer, rather than merely a contractual deliverer. A comparative case study of the mobile phone platforms iPhone and Android is used to analyze this shift in innovative value creation. The notion of generative capacity is introduced to the research on open innovation, suggesting that it is generativity rather than openness that drives the platforms’ aggregated wealth. The two cases from the mobile phone industry illustrate that innovation initiatives can successfully approach generativity in different ways and that both openness and control are important to facilitate supplier contributions  http://www.worldscientific.com/doi/pdf/10.1142/S1363919611003131USdescriptivecoupledwhy_organisation, what_practices, how_implemented, what_effectsservicesbachelor, master, phdsuccessfulOpen Innovation, iphone, Android, Apple, Google, generativity, external value creation
617Open Innovation Platform Case: Six case studiesCase studies including LEGO, P&G and MIT Media Lab. The six case studies are for Fab Labs, Facemooc, LEGO Ideas, MIT Media Lab, .Net Gadgeteer and Procter and Gamble's Connect + Develop. These examples were selected because they cover a variety of approaches to open innovation, which have been mapped on a landscape of open innovation, as shown above. The map shows that the examples ranged from knowledge being brokered or drawn in from outside, to collaboratively generated knowledge within the system in one dimension and commercial to community activity in another.  http://imagination.lancs.ac.uk/news/Open_Innovation_Platform_Case_StudiesUSdescriptivecoupledwhy_organisation, what_practices, how_implemented, what_effectsmanufacturingbachelor, mastersuccessfulOpen innovation platforms
618Open Innovation in the construction industry with a specific focus on Swedish wood-construction companiesAbout open innovation activities among Swedish wooden construction companies including Inwido This report aims to deascribe the present status of Open Innovation in general and more specifically in small and medium sized companies and the construction industry (part 1). Further the aim is to provide an illustrative overview of the present status of Open Innovation activities among Swedish wooden construction companies (part 2) and finally to discuss how the application of more open innovation activities in the Swedish construction industry could enhance product development (part 3).  https://www.researchgate.net/publication/283546926_Open_innovation_in_the_construction_industry_with_a_specific_focus_on_Swedish_wood-construction_companiesSEdescriptivecoupledwhy_organisation, what_practices, how_implemented, what_effectsmanufacturingbachelor, phdsuccessfulOpen Innovation in wood construction industry, Open Innovation in Sweden, Open Innovation in SMEs, incubators
611Open Innovation in the automotive industry: A Multiple case-studyAbout the open innovation approaches, methods and roadblocks for companies in automotive industry and detailly examines 3 case studies in the field. Our chapter aims at exploring the concept of Open Innovation (OI) and evaluating whether, why and how it is adopted in the automotive field. Moreover, the intent is identifying which kinds of potential advantages and risks automotive companies should face when choosing Open Innovation strategies. As regards its basic goal, the study attempts to enrich the existing empirical evidence because few studies about the topic were conducted.  http://www.intechopen.com/books/management-of-technological-innovation-in-developing-and-developed-countries/open-innovation-in-the-automotive-industry-a-multiple-case-studyDE, ITdescriptivecoupledwhy_organisation, what_practices, how_implemented, what_effectsmanufacturingbachelor, master, phdsuccessfulOpen Innovation and automotive industry, Bosch, Pininfarina, networks, collaborations, venture capital
622Open Innovation in SMEs: How can small companies and start-ups benefit from open innovation strategies?Case studies prepared by Wim Vanhaverbeke The report includes several case studies of SMEs. The topics of the report are: Why does Open Innovation in SMEs deserve more attention, business-model in low-tech SMEs, a dynamic view on business model innovation, how SMEs build new business models through Open Innovation, cooperating with giants: organizing and managing Open Innovation successfully.  http://www.academia.edu/24091716/Open_innovation_in_SMEs_How_can_small_companies_and_start-ups_benefit_from_open_innovation_strategiesBE, DK, NLdescriptivecoupledwhy_organisation, what_practices, how_implemented, what_effectsservicesbachelor, master, phdsuccessfulOpen Innovation is SMEs, value creation, business model innovation, new business models, innovation network, innovation partners, intellectual property, collaboration, start-up
638Open Innovation at SiemensSiemens and its efforts to develop and commercialize new R&D through open innovation, including internal and external crowdsourcing contests.Siemens and its efforts to develop and commercialize new R&D through open innovation, including internal and external crowdsourcing contests. http://www.hbs.edu/faculty/Pages/item.aspx?num=48970DEteachingcoupledwhy_organisation, what_practices, how_implemented, what_effectsmanufacturingbachelor, master, executivesuccessfulSiemens, innovation management, crowdsourcing, innovation strategy, knowledge management, R&D, energy, manufacturing
621Open Innovation as a strategy for small high–tech companies: A study of two small high–tech companies in SwedenOpen innovation in Swedish high-tech companies Applied Nano Surfacs and Jeelee Software This study focuses on two small Swedish high–tech companies. The purpose is to investigate what strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats these specific high-tech companies perceive in using open innovation in their business model  http://bth.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2%3A831861&dswid=3796SEdescriptivecoupledwhy_organisation, what_practices, how_implemented, what_effectsservicesbachelor, master, phdsuccessfulOpen Innovation, strategy, SME, software consulting, nano technology
610Open Innovation and control: A case from VolvoA case study at Volvo regarding collaboration with a telecommunication operator and a telecommunication infrastructure provider. Building upon a longitudinal case study, this paper provides an example of open innovation from the Volvo Group. The vehicle manufacturer joined forces for inter-organizational collaboration with a telecommunication operator and a telecommunication infrastructure provider in order to nurture the innovation of vehicle services. Ten years since its formation, this study provides an interpretation in terms of open innovation and illuminates several implications. By focusing the case on IT aspects, we show how the chosen system approach inscribes a high level of control that does not nurture distribution of new vehicle services among other stakeholders. The paper contributes to nuance the understanding of open innovation and in particular demonstrates the role of IT.  http://www.inderscience.com/info/inarticle.php?artid=42414SEdescriptivecoupledwhy_organisation, what_practices, how_implemented, what_effectsmanufacturingbachelor, master, phdsuccessfulOpen Innovation and control, Volvo, vehicle service innovation, open innovation and role of IT, WirelessCar
632OI in a cosmetic firm: Developing capabilities in managing communitiesAbout understanding how a firm arranges itself organisationally to develop special capabilities in managing communities. Case company is Natura. Open Innovation is a new concept regarding interorganizational collaboration. This new approach preconizes the achievement of competitive advantages by searching external sources of innovation as well as external applications for internal technologies. However, we argue that implementing a strategy based on open innovation requires the development of specific capabilities in managing communities. Thus, this article aims at understanding how a firm arranges itself organisationally in order to develop these capabilities. As we are exploring new insights about open innovation, we opted for a case study as methodological approach. By describing and analysing the practical experience of Natura – a Brazilian cosmetic company - in implementing open innovation, we could identify why and when these managerial capabilities are required and how they are developed and inserted in the company’s routines, by mobilization of the firm’s dynamic capabilities. We could observe that the institutional variety between communities interferes in access to knowledge, on contracts and projects architectures, on priorities, targets and guidelines, among other aspects; and that the development of capabilities in managing this diversity relies on seeing these communities as new innovation resources which require new managerial arrangements.  https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228884128_Open_Innovation_in_a_Cosmetic_Firm_Developing_Capabilities_in_Managing_CommunitiesBRdescriptivecoupledwhy_organisation, what_practices, how_implemented, what_effectsmanufacturingbachelor, master, phdsuccessfulCosmetic company, cosmetic firm, cosmetics, Crowdsource, Crowdsourcing, Innovation, Knowledge, Open Innovation
601Networking as a means to strategy change: The case of Open Innovation in mobile telephonyThe purpose of this article is to investigate how innovation networks can be used to deal with a changing technological environment by examining Nokia as a case company. This study combines different concepts related to R&D collaboration strategies of large firms and applies these concepts to R&D alliance projects undertaken by Nokia Corporation in the period 1985-2002.  https://www.researchgate.net/publication/227604691_Networking_as_a_Means_to_Strategy_Change_The_Case_of_Open_Innovation_in_Mobile_TelephonyFIdescriptivecoupledwhy_organisation, what_practices, how_implemented, what_effectsmanufacturingbachelor, master, phdsuccessfulNokia, Open Innovation, networking, alliance, make or buy decision
629Methods of Open Innovation knowledge sharing risk reduction: A case studyIt focuses risk sharing by examining P&G as a case study. This study takes a more practice perspective in reviewing knowledge sharing risks of open innovation. It reviews existing literature to examine a case study of an organization to explore how the organization approaches its open innovation risk concerns related to knowledge sharing. Initially, this paper reviews the terms open innovation and knowledge sharing based on scholarly research and from a practice perspective. Following this, it reviews this case study to get a better understanding of how an organization balances the risks of knowledge sharing with the benefits of an open innovation approach. There-after it develops a conceptual framework based on the review of this case study. Finally, it provides concluding remarks, research limitations, and implications for future research.  http://www.ijeeee.org/show-32-372-1.htmlUSdescriptivecoupledwhy_organisation, what_practices, how_implemented, what_effectsmanufacturingbachelor, master, phdsuccessfulOpen Innovation, Knowledge sharing, innovation, risks.
606Managing Open Innovation in SMEs: A good practice example of a German software firmAbout organizational capabilities for managing open innovation in SMEs based on a case study analysis of the company CAS Software AG Current research indicates that firms are opening up their innovation processes and adapt their business models to benefit not only from internal but also from external ideas and knowledge. So far, most of the research on open innovation has been focused on open innovation practices in large firms and has not considered open innovation in SMEs adequately. For this reason, our paper investigates organizational capabilities for managing open innovation in SMEs. Based on a case study analysis of the company CAS Software AG the researchers argue that SMEs have to build up new managerial capabilities within six dimensions of an integrated managerial system for open innovation. In addition the paper reveals the prosperous transformation process of the CAS Software AG towards an open innovator highlighting its characteristic of a guided evolution by means of a maturity model.  http://www.iim.ftn.uns.ac.rs/casopis/volume4/ijiem_vol4_no1_5.pdfDEdescriptiveinboundwhy_organisation, what_practices, how_implemented, what_effectsservicesbachelor, master, phdsuccessfulManagement systems for innovation, Open Innovation, SME, organizational capabilities, organizational change
603Linked innovation: 5 keys to success in Open innovation challenge managementAbout the application of a targeted broadcast crowd sourcing method to identify unobvious solution providers for a German chain-drive industry consortium. Open Innovation crowd sourcing methods, when applied to the right problem, can effectively extend the solution provider search beyond the boundaries of an industry. This article presents the application of a targeted broadcast crowd sourcing method to identify unobvious solution providers for a German chain-drive industry consortium. The majority of solutions submitted through this method were previously unknown to the consortium. This evaluation demonstrates the power of open crowd sourcing to provide solutions from discontinuous industries and how effective crowd sourcing can be in open innovation.  https://www.innovationmanagement.se/2013/07/31/linked-innovation-5-keys-to-success-in-open-innovation-challenge-management/DEdescriptivecoupledwhy_organisation, what_practices, how_implemented, what_effectsmanufacturingbachelor, mastersuccessfulChemical industry, collaborative innovation, crowdsourcing, Europe, innovation networks, linked innovation, local search bias, methodology, open call, Open Innovation, product development, R&D, solution provider
613Introducing Open Innovation at IntuitThe introduction of open innovation at Intuit that provides financial solutions. The purpose of this chapter is not to provide a conclusive overview of that research, but rather to discuss one particular domain that has received significant and increasing attention over the last decade: open innovation. In this chapter, we discuss the introduction of open innovation at Intuit, a US fortune 1000 company, that provides financial solutions to consumers and small businesses as well as the people that serve them, i.e. accountants, financial institutions and health care providers. Although open innovation is a journey in progress at Intuit, there are relevant experiences and insights to share.  https://www.academia.edu/17639602/Introducing_open_innovation_at_Intuitemptydescriptivecoupledwhy_organisation, what_practices, how_implemented, what_effectsservicesbachelor, master, phdsuccessfulOpen innovation, financial solutions
602Implementing Open Innovation: The case of Natura, IBM and SiemensAbout open innovation activities in Natura, IBM and Siemens. Main topics are alignment of OI with corporate strategy, organizational requirements, implementation, barriers and results. This paper analyses three case firms whose innovation management processes have been consolidated. The companies Natura, IBM (Brazilian Subsidiary) and Siemens (ChemTech/Brazil) were studied with the purpose of analysing the implementation of OI, particularly in terms of: (a) its alignment with existing corporate strategy; (b) its requirements such as culture, skill and motivation; (c) the strategy and the implementation process; (d) the results achieved (e) the present barriers and enablers. The research is qualitative in nature and employs a descriptive approach. The main results of this study, obtained using a method called ‘Collective Subject Speech’ , show that the implementation of OI, both structured and non-structured, is mainly challenged by cultural issues. It has been observed that the implementation of OI process is at its embryonic stage in all case firms and that this occurs along with investments in closed innovation, meaning that OI results cannot be explored at this stage of the implementation, as there is a long way to consolidate these practices in the case firms studied.  https://www.jotmi.org/index.php/GT/article/view/1249BRdescriptivecoupledwhy_organisation, what_practices, how_implemented, what_effectsmanufacturingbachelor, master, phdsuccessfulInnovation processes, Open Innovation, implementation of Open Innovation, innovation management
620How to implement Open InnovationIt examines how to start implementing open innovation strategies by using case studies of BP, Philips, Kodak and Unilever. This report sets out to answer the question: ‘I want to implement open innovation – where should I start and what should I do?’ It provides an overview of existing approaches to OI and outlines how a company can start to implement a strategy to match the organisation’s needs. The report will also be useful for senior managers who have been charged with OI implementation.  http://www.ifm.eng.cam.ac.uk/uploads/Resources/Reports/OI_Report.pdfNL, GB, USdescriptivecoupledwhy_organisation, what_practices, how_implemented, what_effectsmanufacturingbachelor, master, phdsuccessfulOI culture, OI procedure, OI skills, OI and R&D, incubation, technology intelligence,
631How small firms can benefit from OI? Evidence from Taiwanese Biotechnology FirmsThe main purpose of this study is to adopt theoretical angle of Open Innovation to discuss the internal capability and external network of the small firms in biotech industry in Taiwan. How can small firms manage Open Innovation? How can internal projects and external networks can be aligned during the process of new drug development in the small firms? The main purpose of this study is to adopt theoretical angle of Open Innovation to discuss the internal capability and external network of the small firms in biotech industry in Taiwan. In addition, we also discuss the alignment of the internal capability and external network of these small firms. We use four Taiwanese biotechnology companies in the stages of new drug development as four cases. This study fills the gap in the literature of Open Innovation by discussing not only external network but also internal capability in an integrated perspective.  https://nus.academia.edu/Departments/Engineering_and_Technology_Management/Documents?page=2TWdescriptivecoupledwhy_organisation, what_practices, how_implemented, what_effectsmanufacturingbachelor, master, phdsuccessfulExternal networks, small firms, drug development, internal capability, biotech industry, new product development, open innovation
619How and why do companies perform Open Innovation? -a comparative study of Norwegian SMEs and large companiesAbout open innovation activities in some Norwegian large companies and SMEs. This study aims to give a deeper understanding of how and why small and medium sized Norwegian enterprises perform Open Innovation compared to large Norwegian companies. The emphasis is on how the companies manage their innovation processes and the advantages firms can gain through this kind of innovation management.  https://brage.bibsys.no/xmlui/handle/11250/266490NOdescriptivecoupledwhy_organisation, what_practices, how_implemented, what_effectsmanufacturingbachelor, phdsuccessfulOpen Innovation in large companies and SMEs, Open Innovation in Norway, Statoil, FINN.no, Rocketfarm,Vom og Hundemat, OI methods in large and small companies, Open Innovation strategy
598Fiat: Open Innovation in a Downturn (1993-2003)Open Innovation strategies and implementation at Fiat during automotive crises during 1993-2003 "This article focuses on the organization and innovation strategy devised by Gian Carlo Michellone for CRF during the 1990s, which resembled and anticanticipated most of the underpinnings of what would become known as the open innovation paradigm5 that originated from Henry Chesbrough’s work. The CRF case is interesting because it demonstrates how open innovation can provide a strategic approach that enables a firm to protect its innovation capabilities from the risk of severe resource rationalizations during periods of crisis, and to confer starting point to replicate them once the downturn is over."  http://cmr.berkeley.edu/search/articleDetail.aspx?article=5564empty, ITdescriptivecoupledwhy_organisation, what_practices, how_implemented, what_effectsmanufacturingbachelor, master, phd, executivesuccessfulFiat, Bosch, Crysler, Automotive, open innovation, licensing,
630Eskom initiated OI: Pilot case studyIt focuses on value creation by using external resources at Eskom as a case company. Through this OI pilot project, Eskom wanted to ascertain how well Eskom was doing with its own thinking in terms of innovative ideas compared to the innovation space outside Eskom’s boundaries, and was open to the discovery of truly innovative ideas.Two approaches to OI were available to Eskom, namely (i) develop and leverage a local OI eco-system; and(ii) tap into the global NineSigma OI network. The decision was to go with both approaches depending on the challenge. Eskom followed an OI project methodology with the following phases:(i) DEFINE;(ii) CONNECT; (iii) EVALUATE;and(iv) ACQUIRE;and aligned temporary committees to this OI methodology.  http://www.solexinnovation.com/templates/images/Eskom%20Case%20Study%20Aug%202012_Open%20Innovation%20in%20South%20Africa.pdfZAdescriptivecoupledwhy_organisation, what_practices, how_implemented, what_effectsservicesbachelor, mastersuccessfulCrowdsourcing, Eskom, Open innovation
609Crowdsourcing and Open Innovation: A study of Amazon Mechanical Turk and Apple iOSCrowdsourcing and the ways in which firms have opened up their boundaries to external labour via a digital platform in Amazon and Apple cases Open Innovation has attracted widespread attention. A number of critical voices have recently surfaced who have called for a more rounded assessment that moves beyond the firm and the focus on benefits. In response, this paper provides a counterpoint to the positivity with a focus on labour issues and external actors. Attention is directed towards crowdsourcing and the ways in which firms have opened up their boundaries to external labour via a digital platform. Two distinct case studies - Amazon Mechanical Turk and Apple iOS - will be used to illuminate the nature of the relationship between the firm/platform owner and the external labour that participates in crowdsourcing. The study shows that while open innovation provides benefits at the firm level, this does not necessarily translate into benefits for labour.  http://www.ltu.se/cms_fs/1.115874!/file/Crowdsourcing%20and%20Open%20Innovation-%20A%20Study%20of%20Amazon%20Mechanical%20Turk%20and%20Apple%20iOS.pdfUSdescriptiveinboundwhy_organisation, what_practices, how_implemented, what_effectsservicesbachelor, master, phdsuccessfulOpen Innovation, crowdsourcing, digital platform, Amazon, Apple, Mechanical Turk, Ios, labour, work and employment
595Connect and Develop About how P&G changed its R&D strategy in the light of open innovation. This article includes the key ideas and provides an overview of how the concepts work in practice. For generations, Procter & Gamble generated most of its phenomenal growth by innovating from within--building global research facilities and hiring the best talent in the world. Back when companies were smaller and the world was less competitive, that model worked just fine. However, in 2000, newly appointed CEO A.G. Lafley saw that P&G couldn't meet its growth objectives by spending greater and greater amounts on R&D for smaller and smaller payoffs. Therefore, he dispensed with the company's age-old "invent it ourselves" approach to innovation and instead embraced a "connect and develop" model.  https://hbr.org/2006/03/connect-and-develop-inside-procter-gambles-new-model-for-innovationUSdescriptivecoupledwhy_organisation, what_practices, how_implemented, what_effectsservicesbachelor, mastersuccessfulInnovation matrix, Open Innovation, Procter & Gamble, Tim Kastelle
605Case study: NASA uses Open Innovation to spur creativity and generate business value. The International Space Apps Challenge Generates 770 ideas in one weekendAbout how Nasa changed its innovation strategy and implemented open innovation. NASA's role in the US federal government isn't what it used to be. The days of the space race are long finished, and Cold-War-fueled, multibillion-dollar missile programs are a distant memory. NASA's uncertain future is also reflected in federal budget allocation. In order to continue producing cutting-edge results, NASA has changed the way it conducts business as well as the type of work it does and the outputs it creates. NASA has increased its outreach to the public at large to generate innovative ideas to best utilize and leverage the space program for the public good. The recent International Space Apps Challenge provides useful lessons in successfully developing and harnessing an open innovation ecosystem to better engage the public, find new and innovative ideas, and do it on a global basis. Forrester spoke with Dr. Sasi Kumar Pillay, chief technology officer at NASA, about lessons learned from the International Space Apps Challenge.  https://www.forrester.com/report/Case+Study+NASA+Uses+Open+Innovation+To+Spur+Creativity+And+Generate+Business+Value/-/E-RES105744USdescriptiveinboundwhy_organisation, what_practices, how_implemented, what_effectsmanufacturingbachelor, master, phdsuccessfulAerospace and defense, architecture and technology strategy, co-creation and crowdsourcing, government, innovation, open source, public sector
637Case studies on Open Innovation in ICTOpen innovation strategies from 13 ICT companies around Europe The study builds upon 13 case studies of innovative ICT and ICT-enabled European companies. These 13 case studies include four large companies and nine SMEs. The aim of the study is to assess the impact of Open Innovation strategies on companies’ innovation procedures and to highlight the role of ICT in Open Innovation processes.  http://publications.jrc.ec.europa.eu/repository/bitstream/JRC100823/jrc100823_case%20studies%20on%20open%20innovation%20in%20ict.pdfEURdescriptivecoupledwhy_organisation, what_practices, how_implemented, what_effectsmanufacturingbachelor, master, phd, executivesuccessfulOpen Innvation, ICT, SME, OI in Europe
607Case studies : LEGOAbout how LEGO use crowdsourcing in its LUGNET platform The study is about how LEGO implemented an Open Innovation strategy on the verge of an economic crises especially by exploiting user ideas for new product design   DKdescriptiveinboundwhy_organisation, what_practices, how_implemented, what_effectsmanufacturingbachelor, mastersuccessfulLEGO, LUGNET, crowdsourcing, external, customer co-creation in R&D
615An Open Innovation story from Turkey: VESTEL MagnetoUniversity-industry collaboration case study at Vestel. The paper is about how Vestel collaborated with Ege University Science and Technology Centre (EBILTEM) and participated in international joint research project entitled “Magneto”.  http://www.innovationmanagement.se/2011/09/22/an-open-innovation-story-from-turkey-vestel-magneto/TRdescriptivecoupledwhy_organisation, what_practices, how_implemented, what_effectsuniversityentreprisebachelor, master, phdsuccessfulVestel, industry-university collaboration, international networks, integrated service management, integrated network management
628Absorptive capacity and innovative performance in an open innovation network: A case study of Symbian going openOpen innovation activities in Symbian Foundation The project aimed to undertake explanatory research to analyse the motivating factors for a platform to be open-sourced. Secondly, the project aimed to use existing conceptual frameworks relating to the effect of ACAP on innovative performance to develop and test the following hypothesis: The innovative performance of the open platform is positively moderated by four key drivers of ACAP: (1) Organisational structure and processes; (2) Firm members’ mental models; (3) Incentives and compensation practices; and (4) Power relationships. The research explored these aspects of an open industry platform through a case study of Symbian Foundation, a not-for-profit organisation governing and supporting the Symbian mobile platform and Nokia, a major contributing member company to the Symbian platform.  https://workspace.imperial.ac.uk/rajivgandhicentre/public/Prem%20Lakshminarayanan%20-%20MBA%20Project%20Summary.pdfGBdescriptivecoupledwhy_organisation, what_practices, how_implemented, what_effectsservicesbachelor, master, phdsuccessfulAbsorptive capacity,open platforms, innovative performance, organizational structure
627A Case study of Natura Campus OI platform - A collaborative systems overviewA presentation of the relation between open innovation and collaborative systems in Natura case Innovation is receiving considerable attention since companies are facing difficulties to create new products and interact with customers under markets that constantly changes. In the face of such scenario the open innovation seems to be an effective strategy to keep enterprises aware of customer needs and also interact with universities which are able to understand the tendencies and holds deep knowledge of innovative subjects. Although open innovation has a rich literature regarding the benefits and cases of success this literature does not focus on how collaboration systems are used to support open innovation. In this article we present the important relation that exists between open innovation and collaborative systems with a case study of Natura Campus program. We evaluated tools which compose the collaboration platform and how it supports Natura Campus Open Innovation. We found that CSCW tools are capable of support open innovation and help to bring effective results in order to enhance competitiveness.  http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/login.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6846886&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fxpls%2Fabs_all.jsp%3Farnumber%3D6846886BRdescriptivecoupledwhy_organisation, what_practices, how_implemented, what_effectsmanufacturingbachelor, master, phdsuccessfulOpen innovation, collaboration systems, new products
597 Commercialising a disruptive technology based upon university IP through Open Innovation: A case study of Cambridge Display TechnologyThe use of a university (Cambridge) spin-out firm to bring a potentially disruptive technology to market. The focus for discussion is how a spin-out can build a technology ecosystem of providers of complementary resources to enable partner organizations to build competence in a novel and potentially disruptive technology. The paper uses the illustrative case of Cambridge Display Technology Ltd (CDT) to consider these issues from the perspective of the literature on open innovation (with particular emphasis on the role of partnerships between start-ups and established firms), the commercialization of university IP, and the commercialization of disruptive technologies.  http://www.worldscientific.com/doi/abs/10.1142/S0219877007001107GBdescriptivecoupledwhy_organisation, what_practices, how_implemented, what_effectsmanufacturingbachelor, master, phdsuccessfulLED, Cambridge, University spin-outs, open innovation, disruptive technologies, technology ecosystem